Cannabis Education

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The Stable Isotope Ratios of Marijuana.

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Cannabis Regulation ~ Strategies for Reform

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Released from Prison?

Some crazy information that got passed my way and thought I would share.




















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Triad Residents Sentenced on Marijuana Charges

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Triad Residents Sentenced on Drug Trafficking and Money Laundering Charges

December 01, 2016
Contact: Public Information Officer
Number: 404-893-7124

DEC 01 (GREENSBORO, N.C.) – Six members of a marijuana distribution and money laundering organization that operated in Alamance, Guilford, and Wake Counties were sentenced on drug trafficking and money laundering charges, announced Ripley Rand, United States Attorney for the Middle District of North Carolina.

As of November 28, 2016, five defendants - Nilanh Chanthaphavong, Davone Chanthaphavong, Marcus Emmanuel Parrish, Phadthin Sihavong, and Vanhasy Manhvong – had been sentenced by United States District Court Judge Catherine C. Eagles. A sixth defendant, Eugene Ari McAdoo, was sentenced by United States District Court Judge Thomas D. Schroeder on August 30, 2016.

According to court records, Phadthin Sihavong used the United States Postal Service to ship pounds of marijuana in overnight packages from Fresno, California, to co-conspirators in the Middle District of North Carolina. The packages were shipped with fictitious sender and receiver names and no signature was required for delivery. Once the marijuana was received in North Carolina, the co-conspirators distributed the marijuana to local customers and deposited the proceeds into a bank account in the name of Akilles Motorsports to promote the drug activity and to conceal the true nature of the proceeds. Over $1 million was deposited into the Akilles Motorsports account between February 23, 2012, and July 3, 2013. Akilles Motorsports was a business front for the money laundering organization. 
          
Daniel R. Salter, the Special Agent in Charge of the DEA Atlanta Division stated, “Today is a victory, not only for the multitude of law enforcement agencies who dismantled this organization, but for the citizens in Alamance, Guilford and Wake Counties. Now that these criminals have been removed from the streets, the dangerous drugs that they would have sold will never reach the consumer. This effort would not have been successful without the mission-oriented cooperation between our federal, state and local law enforcement counterparts.”

“The members of this drug and money laundering conspiracy were brought to justice through effective cooperation by law enforcement,” said U.S. Attorney Rand. “We are pleased to have been part of the team to stop the influx of these drugs into North Carolina and to hold the offenders accountable.”

“The laundering of illegal drug profits is as important and essential to drug traffickers as the very distribution of their illegal drugs. Without these ill-gotten gains, the traffickers could not finance their organizations. IRS Criminal Investigation is committed with taking the profit away from the drug traffickers and putting those individuals in jail,” stated Acting Special Agent-in-Charge, Christopher J. Altemus, Jr.

Davone Chanthaphavong, of Graham, NC, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to distribute marijuana and conspiracy to commit money laundering. He was sentenced to a term of three years’ probation and a $200.00 special assessment.

Nilanh Chanthaphavong # 30439-057 of Raleigh, NC, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to distribute marijuana and conspiracy to commit money laundering. He was sentenced to 37 months in the Federal Bureau of Prisons, three years supervised release, and a $200.00 special assessment.

Vanhasy Manhvong, formerly of Whitsett, NC, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit money laundering. She was sentenced to 12 months in the Federal Bureau of Prisons, two years supervised release, and a $200.00 special assessment.

Eugene Ari McAdoo # 33277-057 of Whitsett, NC, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit money laundering. He was sentenced to six months in the Federal Bureau of Prisons, three years supervised release, a $100.00 special assessment, and a $2500.00 fine.

Marcus Emmanuel Parrish # 30437-057 of Graham, NC, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to distribute marijuana and conspiracy to commit money laundering. He was sentenced to 15 months in the Federal Bureau of Prisons, three years supervised release, and a $200.00 special assessment.

Phadthin Sihavong # 71665-097 of Fresno, CA, pleaded guilty to conspiracy to distribute marijuana and conspiracy to commit money laundering. He was sentenced to 57 months in the Federal Bureau of Prisons, three years supervised release, and a $200.00 special assessment.

The case was investigated by the Internal Revenue Service-Criminal Investigation, United States Postal Inspection Service, and the Drug Enforcement Administration, and prosecuted by Assistant United States Attorney Randall S. Galyon.

The DEA encourages parents, along with their children, to educate themselves about the dangers of legal and illegal drugs by visiting DEA’s interactive websites at www.justthinktwice.comwww.GetSmartAboutDrugs.com and www.dea.gov.

 



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Cannabis Prohibition ~ The Beardude

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It’s been called one of B.C.’s most bizarre drug cases in recent memory. A story with a cast of characters including an oddball hippy, a pot-bellied pig, an overly friendly raccoon and twenty-four black bears. Oh, and a thousand pot plants, apparently guarded by the bears. The bust took place in August of 2010 near the Village of Christina Lake, British Columbia and the story travelled to all parts of the world, including the United States, Denmark, England, India and Russia, where a news anchor lady could not stop laughing as she read the story. The New York Post declared, “Don’t Smokey near this bear.” Today, Allen Piche, aka ‘The Beardude’, announced the release of his book, The Beardude Story, which chronicles his side of this strange tale.

'In my opinion, its prohibition, which was jammed down our throats against the wishes of many wise and eloquent voices for the seventies, is one of the tragedies of our society in m lifetime. The choice was, 'drugs are a health issue' versus 'drugs are a legal issues' Shame on those who perpetuated the myth that it was a dangerous drug and had to be controlled. Shame on those who, through fear and ignorance, later began the war on drugs, that nifty bit of leadership which did nothing but the opposite of its intentions. It twisted or ruined the lives of so many promising young people, the ones who might have become leaders. It crushed our belief in government and law as positive forces and raised a level of rebellion that many of us still embrace. It created the gangs and violence that we have today, just like the prohibition of alcohol did in the early years of the 1900's. Did it never occur t these people that a war on drugs is really a war on the people, their own people, thus creating a cold civil war that has lasted for over forty years?'

-- Chief Norm Stamper LEAP

'Think of this war's real causalities: tens of thousand of otherwise innocent Americans incarcerated, many for 20 years, some for life; families ripped apart; drug traffickers and blameless bystanders shot dead on the city streets; narcotics officers assassinated here and abroad, with prosecutors, judges, and elected officials in Latin America gunned down for their courageous stand against the cartels; and all those dollars spent on federal, state, and local cops, courts, prosecutors, prisons, probation, parole, and pee-in-the-bottle programs'

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Time to End Cannabis Prohibition



As you know....I (Adela Falk) serve as a prison outreach coordinator for POW420. I am here representing our brothers and sisters, children, parents, grandparents...everyone wrongly incarcerated for unjust cannabis laws. I urge for judicial reform or at best a harm reduction approach to this war on cannabis.

Our point of view is important as we bring a human approach - compassionate, empathy based policy which are always at play with humankind and to significantly inform individual’s use of cannabis and policy makers response to cannabis use. For too long, the Federal Gov’t and States have been on a path that is directed by and grounded in policies which are punitive, dehumanizing and result in over criminalization. The ‘empathy based’ movement elevates the imperative of affirming the moral center and moral authority which emanates from the sacred views inherent in all of humanity.

All over the US in every State and City global drug policies and punitive responses to cannabis use have resulted in the devastation of individuals, families and entire communities who continue to suffer the collateral damage from systems and practices that continue to marginalize and disempower them.

To be sure, US policies disproportionately impact global policies. The 1970’s declaration of the War on Drugs in the US has resulted in intergenerational human devastation and trauma. It has cost over a trillion dollars and has resulted in a system of mass incarceration where now the US who represent 5% of the world’s population holds 25% of the world's incarcerated in its jails and prisons. The current trend towards privatization of prisons only exacerbates the commodification of the incarcerated.

The disproportionate impact of the War on Drugs/Cannabis communities of color and poor people has mobilized a profound commitment from ‘the empathy movement’ to dismantle, reform and transform our system. Most importantly starting with the complete Removal/Repeal of cannabis from the Controlled Substance Act. To that end, we are asking for your collective support and mandate for drug/cannabis reform which prioritizes human dignity, equality, and social justice. Our voices and points of view are reverberating throughout America and worldwide. This cycle of injustice, moral injury, and human violation must be interrupted. We know this is not easy work and we are committed to stay the course.

We attest to the fact that people from all faiths, spiritual and religious traditions are negatively impacted by the war on cannabis, individually and corporately. We recognize that cannabis arrests are often based and caused intricately related to generational systems of poverty, racism, sexism, oppression and community marginalization. What is needed are investments in our judicial system, law enforcement to fix our system and approach cannabis use on a scientific fact based only. What is needed are policies that interrupt the mass arrest and incarceration which only furthers the untold human rights violations, massive corruption and violence being experienced by so many on a nationwide scale.

In the US context the War on Cannabis has become a War on the People. It has been noted that its practices and consequences manifest the characteristics closely identified as genocide. It is horrific and the trends towards prison privatization is but a reinvention of the American slave system. It must be dismantled. We call for commutation of all cannabis offenders on State and Federal levels.

In conclusion, we urge all of you to dig deep in your hearts, and examine these issues and policies and help others embrace a new way forward that values an empathy based agenda to fix law enforcement policies and sentencing guidelines and policies...and above all human rights.

Thank you….

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DEA Announces Actions Related to Marijuana and Industrial Hemp


Contact: DEA Public Affairs
(202) 307-7977

 

AUG 11 (WASHINGTON) - The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) announced several marijuana- related actions, including actions regarding scientific research and scheduling of marijuana, as well as principles on the cultivation of industrial hemp under the Agricultural Act of 2014.

DEA Publishes Responses to Two Pending Petitions to Reschedule Marijuana 
DEA has denied two petitions to reschedule marijuana under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). In response to the petitions, DEA requested a scientific and medical evaluation and scheduling recommendation from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), which was conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in consultation with the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Based on the legal standards in the CSA, marijuana remains a schedule I controlled substance because it does not meet the criteria for currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, there is a lack of accepted safety for its use under medical supervision, and it has a high potential for abuse.

In his letter to the petitioners, DEA Acting Administrator Chuck Rosenberg offered a detailed response outlining the factual and legal basis for the denial of the petitions.

The full responses to the petitions can be found in the Federal Register. Response 1 ANDResponse 2 

The DEA and the FDA continue to believe that scientifically valid and well-controlled clinical trials conducted under investigational new drug (IND) applications are the most appropriate way to conduct research on the medicinal uses of marijuana. Furthermore, DEA and FDA believe that the drug approval process is the most appropriate way to assess whether a product derived from marijuana or its constituents is safe and effective and has an accepted medical use. This pathway allows the FDA the important ability to determine whether a product meets the FDA criteria for safety and effectiveness for approval.  

Increasing the Number of Authorized Marijuana Manufacturers Supplying Researchers

DEA announced a policy change designed to foster research by expanding the number of DEA- registered marijuana manufacturers. This change should provide researchers with a more varied and robust supply of marijuana. At present, there is only one entity authorized to produce marijuana to supply researchers in the United States: the University of Mississippi, operating under a contract with NIDA. Consistent with the CSA and U.S. treaty obligations, DEA’s new policy will allow additional entities to apply to become registered with DEA so that they may grow and distribute marijuana for FDA-authorized research purposes.

This change illustrates DEA’s commitment to working together with the FDA and NIDA to facilitate research concerning marijuana and its components. DEA currently has 350 individuals registered to conduct research on marijuana and its components. Notably, DEA has approved 
every application for registration submitted by researchers seeking to use NIDA-supplied marijuana to conduct research that HHS determined to be scientifically meritorious.

Statement of Principles Concerning Industrial Hemp and the Agricultural Act of 2014

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), in consultation with DEA and the FDA, also released a statement of principles concerning provisions of the Agricultural Act of 2014 relating to the cultivation of industrial hemp. Industrial hemp is a low-concentration THC variety of the cannabis plant intended to be used for industrial purposes (e.g., fiber and seed). This statement of principles is intended to inform the public, including institutions of higher education and State departments of agriculture, how Federal law applies to activities associated with industrial hemp that is grown and cultivated in accordance with Section 7606 of the Agricultural Act of 2014.

This statement of principles outlines the legalized growing and cultivating of industrial hemp for research purposes under certain conditions, such as in states where growth and cultivation are legal under state law. The 2014 Act did not remove industrial hemp from the list of controlled substances and, with certain limited exceptions, the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the CSA continue to apply to industrial hemp-related activities. The statement of principles addresses questions including the extent to which private parties may grow industrial hemp as part of an agricultural pilot program, the circumstances under which the sale of hemp products is permitted, and other related topics.

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Marijuana & Bipolar Disorder

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Grinspoon and Bakalar presented six case studies of people with bipolar disorder using cannabis to to rerat their symptoms. Some used it to treat mania, depression, or both. They stated that it was more effective than conventional drugs or helped relieve the side effects of those drugs. One woman found that cannabis curbed her manic rages. Others described the use of cannabis as a a supplement to lithium (allowing reduced consumption) or for relief of lithium;s side effects.

These clinical observations are important leads to potential use of cannabinoids for manic depressive disorder and suggest that clinical trials should be conducted.

Remember, No-one belongs in jail for a plant. To learn more about cannabis and Bipolar Disorder click on the link below.

Marijuana and the Cannabinoids

Grinspoon, L. and Bakalar, J. B. (eds.) (1993) Marihuana, the Forbidden Medicine, Yale ed., Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

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Highly efficient method for cannabis administration.



Smoking, the principal route of cannabis administration in the United States provides a rapid and highly efficient method of drug delivery. Approximately 30% of THC in marijuana or hashish cigarettes is destroyed by pyrolysis during smoking. Drug delivery during cannabis smoking is characterized by rapid absorption of THC. Bioavailablity of smoked THC is reported to be 18-50% partly as a result of the intra- and inter-subject variability in smoking dynamics that contribute to uncertainty in dose delivery. The number, duration and spacing of puffs, hold time, and inhalation volume greatly influence the degree of cannabis exposure.

For more information about cannabis administration click below to view a free pdf book.

Marijuana and the Cannabinoids


Photo shout out to: Kalisha C Everett

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Chemical Structure of cannabinoids in marijuana is important.

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The chemical structure of cannabinoids in marijuana is also important. About 95% of THC present in marijuana plant material is in the form of two carboxylic acids that are converted to THC during smoking. Scientist originally believed that if a person orally ingested marijuana without heating, very little THC would be absorbed. They had evidence that if one heated marijuana before ingestion, as occurs with marijuana brownies, significant quantities of THC were absorbed. Later studies demonstrated that an individual can also absorb THC from marijuana plants that were dried in the sun, because variable amounts of THC released by decarboxylation. Hashish and hashish oil retain much of the parent THC in a form that can be more easily absorbed, whether smoked or ingested orally.

Marijuana and the Cannabinoids ~ Click here


Turner, C.E. Elsohly, M.A., and Boeren, E.G. (1980) Constituents of cannabinoids. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 42, 327-360
Claussen, U. and Korte, F. (1968) Concerning the behavior of hemp and delta-9-6a. 10a trans-tetrahycocannabiniol in smoking, Justus Liebigs. Ann. Chem. 719, 162-165

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